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“Design” a malware

Creating all kinds of malware ( viruses, Trojans, backdoors, etc ) is one of the most interesting topics for people just venture into the world of computer security and it requires certifications for cyber security.

Perhaps, because it brings to the surface all our destructive personality, or because it becomes very exciting to know what techniques are used to create this type of software it is constantly evolving.

In this series of articles we will talk about creating small and malwares effective, leaving aside any other complicated and confusing technique.

Also we discuss what methods are most effective to prevent antimalware protection (commonly known as ‘antivirus’).

Test environment

The environment on which we will work (unless otherwise stated) is Windows XP Professional SP3. It is important to clarify this because, on different operating systems, could have different results.Many of which are discussed later.

For most of our tests, we will use the online “VirusTotal” (service www.virustotal.com ) that will allow us to quickly check our files created. This service uses about 40 different antivirus engines to analyze our files, and gives us a report of how much our products detect ‘exemplary’ as a threat.

According to its own website: “VirusTotal is a free service that analyzes suspicious files and URLs facilitating the rapid detection of viruses, worms, Trojans and all types of malware.”

From the main website is posibe download a “uploader” that will give us the task of uploading files to seek verify.
Link: www.virustotal.com/documentation/desktop-applications

Important!
For all tests below (unless otherwise indicated) has been disabled real – time protection antimalware software. That’s to avoid constantly being deleted files that we create.

First test: Tini Backdoor

Most likely, the most famous backdoor of all. Because of its simplicity and for being available for direct download. ( Http://ntsecurity.nu/toolbox/tini )

It is also available within the security ToolPack: www.portantier.com/proyectos/toolpack

File upload ‘tini’ to VirusTotal, we can see that 39 of 42 antivirus engines have detected as ‘malware’ (92.85% Total dek).

Note
Because of the way the antivirus engines used on VirusTotal work, it is possible that all three engines that have not detected a ‘tini’ in that environment itself are able to do in a normal environment (with software installed on a PC and analyzing real – time behavior backdoor)

One of the things we try to do through these articles is to seek the lowest percentage of possible detection.

If we run the ‘tini.exe’ software, we see that all it does is open the port 7777 and wait for someone connects through ‘telnet’ or similar tool as follows:

telnet 192.168.0.105 7777

Once this is done, we will have a command line on the infected system.

Because the operation of this software is so simple, we can use a hex editor to modify one of its parameters and ‘create’ a new malware.

Truly, the only thing we will do is change the port on which the backdoor expects to receive connections.

For this, we can use the ‘hexedit’ software (also included ToolPack) or any other hex editor.

After opening the file, we will look for the string ‘1E61′ (which is 7777 in hexadecimal number) and we will replace the string ’04c5’ (which is the number 1221 in hexadecimal)

That done, save the file and execute it to prove it . If all goes well, the software should work fine, but listening on TCP / 1221 port instead of TCP / 7777 port.
(To verify this, we can use the ‘netstat -an’ command)

Made this small change, we climbed the file to VirusTotal again and we see now is only detected by 32 of 42 engines! (76.19%). It is much change to have done so little !!!

That is one of the main problems of detecting malware through signatures. It is possible to get an antivirus can not recognize a file simply making some minor modification.

As explained above, it is possible that some of these engines are still able to detect the new version of ‘tini’ if they are installed on the workstation and with all enabled features, but this serves to give us an idea of how vulnerable they may be remove malware solutions.

What do you think of this hypnotic design isotype?

They presented in Argentina the logo of the Bicentennial of Independence on July 9, which is true. Raining criticism and memes.

Buenos Aires, Argentina.- The Government of Argentina presented the logo (actually it is an isotype) that will accompany the celebration of the 200th anniversary of independence. Reviews and months are trend on networks and check out to this http://www.nlpcoaching.com.au/ the definition of hypnosis.

On the occasion of the Bicentennial of the Independence of Argentina , the Government introduced the isotype that will accompany the celebrations next Thursday July 9.

However, an image that could have gone almost unnoticed, became the center of attention for its hypnotic design. The logo was introduced in the first turn on Twitter, by the first Argentine president Mauricio Macri.

Ver imagen en Twitter

In networks, cockade criticism is obviously the concept of the logo are added. Especially what most people ask is “I return” to the sun in the center. It is that while the design contemplates the manner of a glow, many require the return of the classic yellow star.

Those in favor speak of minimalism, wit and visual appeal. Those who are against it , compare it to the logo with an amoeba or a fried egg with the yolk removed him from the center.

Of course, there memes and the theme is trend in Argentina. You can check out this website http://www.nlpcoaching.com.au/ to know more about hypnosis and how it controls people’s mind and get over from depression and stress.

Designing an ecological house

If you’ve decided where you will live, you have located (or purchased) land to build an ecological house, and you have an architect, it’s time to start designing!

What is the difference between designing an ecological house and a conventional home?

Well, technically the process is quite similar, however, the design of an ecological house requires a much more thorough study of the terrain and environmental characteristics of the site (incidence of sun, vegetation, cool breezes for ventilation, etc.) and as a study of the possible natural building systems. Although a house of concrete or brick can be green in some respects, there are much more environmentally friendly and healthy natural materials such as wood, earth and straw. It will be necessary to assess our requirements with the architect and reach an agreement.

Remember!

If you are thinking of building an ecological house of wood, straw or ground, it is advisable to seek an expert architect in green building, Myrtle beach home builders is highly recommended.

Anyway, as I said there is a technical process to follow which I detail below:

Steps to design an ecological house:

Design-house-ecologica

STEP 1: Ground Survey

In this step we assume you have already purchased a suitable land to build an ecological house following the criteria described on page purchase a land in which case you will have taken into account the most important issues when buying land.

Keep in mind that the first field visit is usually done with the architect, usually before signing the contract, it is also advisable to visit the land with our architect even before he bought the land because in this way the architect us you can help evaluate the purchase decision.

In any case, once you have the land and the architect will be time to visit the field to get down to work.

The first step to start the architectural project will carry out a geotechnical study will give us information on the type of terrain. In addition there are a number of factors that will influence the proper functioning of our ecological house. The list is detailed on pagebuy land to build an ecological house .

For our ecological house make the most of natural resources is important that our architect takes into account all these factors and the climate. The first field visit with the architect is an opportunity to assess whether our goals are aligned with the architect’s ideas.

Remember!

Study the microclimate of the area, check local weather websites and ask neighbors and elderly people in the area on floods, rainfall, etc.

STEP 2: Conceptual designs or blueprint

The draft design stage is the most creative stage for the design of a green home, is when the architect must tidying all customer needs and that these are consistent with an efficient building system that maximizes natural resources through passive systems energy harvesting.

During this phase working with freehand drawings, diagrams and even simple 3D visualizations. It is important during this phase remains defined the main distribution, constructive system and the energy system because once the final design process starts all changes can result in delays. It may be the case even our architect set a maximum number of changes without cost from the approval of the conceptual design.

Remember!

You should reach this stage with a clear list of needs and design requirements and ecological criteria to guide your architect. If you have not yet made, review the steps 7,8 and 9 of section decides where you will live .

Conceptual designs should consider building systems but be flexible enough to accommodate different energy systems. The selection of materials with high or low thermal inertia and right combination on walls, ceilings and floors for efficient thermal comfort vary greatly depending on other decisions as the amount of glass openings and energy systems.

For this reason, in this step, receive advice from an expert in bioclimatic design can be helpful because in this moment the design is flexible, you can define the basis for a high level of energy efficiency.

STEP 3: Development of final design

The design of an ecological house will be a long process of back and forth with the architect in order to reach the project that best suits your needs ecological house.

The architect begins with a preliminary lace that includes the distribution of the rooms and main rooms, location of access, doors and windows as well as some sketches overall picture of housing and its location in relation to the ground.

During this phase it will be important also provide a basis in relation to the selection of construction system and materials. It’s time to start valuing the interior finishes and if they are consistent with the construction system that is being proposed.

What size should have a green home?

Remember that the cost of an ecological or not home, depends on a price per square meter built, for this reason, the larger housing, the higher the cost of overall construction but also higher maintenance costs and heating or cooling.

During the draft, when we will see the distribution and size of the rooms, it is ideal to reconsider whether we really need so much space or if instead we can reduce meter and invest the remaining money on improving energy efficiency systems to save time more forward.

Reduce some meters from each of the rooms can save enough money to pay double glazing improving housing insulation or to pay a photovoltaic system.

Remember!

The bigger your house, the greater the costs of construction and
maintenance.

Once we are clear about the general concept of our new home, it will be time to go into detail. During this process, the architect will work on the basic and executive project of our housing and with the clear objective of defining how it is to be built. Often from acceptance of preliminary design, subsequent design changes overcharged be considered, since a change in the phase of detail can lead to a lot of hours of work to the design team.

An advice….

During the draft, measure furniture that you intend to use your new (new and existing) home as beds, sofas, tables, etc and ask your architect to draw them to scale on the ground, this way you can view as your family will use the new spaces and you can identify problems as they can be oversized spaces or complex circulations.

During the definition phase the basic and executive project, our architect will work on defining the following:

The good performance of the design process will be a key to a sustainable and healthy housing factor.

The last phase of the design process includes specifying in detail the materials and construction systems, which is called measurements and serve to request a quote the builder, as well as the generation of the necessary documentation to meet legal requirements regarding sustainability, fire protection and others.

Once our architect has all the documentation and it has been reviewed and approved by the customer, the architectural project is ready to move the legal procedures and begin construction.

STEP 4 visa association of architects

Before applying for a building permit to the local council, the architectural project must be validated by the Professional Association of Architects, which will check that our architect is enlisted as a professional and certify the viability of the project. This step usually does not last more than a week.

STEP 5 Town Hall building permit

The last step before you start building a green home is to obtain a building permit by the local council.

How long does the granting of a building permit?

Each municipality can vary slightly its regulations and therefore the term varies from one population to another, but if there are no setbacks (as errors in drafting the project that should be amended or building permits classified as heritage areas, for example) this process usually takes one to three months maximum, although some ayutamientos can set up a year of granting the building permit (especially in large cities)

Both the cost of the visa of the College of Architects and the Building Permit, are borne by the customer and are calculated based on the constructed meters, budget and location of housing.

Graphic Designer & DJ

shutterstock_231090364

A subject that has always interested me is that existing aesthetic relationship between music and design, something that surely will agree many of my fellow designers.

I also think that this relationship goes beyond simply sit and do work while listening to Spotify.

The musical language has been linked to the visual language forever. Music can easily associate any image through common forms of expression, such as color, texture, harmony or rhythm … and is because they are branches of the same tree.

Since music and design move my mountains, I could have devoted to designing album covers, for example. It has not happened, but being objective, the kind of work that performance is quite good and also the recording industry is not what it was.

Somehow I have compensated for being the DJ of the study (with help of dj hire melbourne). In fact, I put soundtrack to working hours and not on merit, it happens that I’m located near the string sound, that’s all.

Although I try to get it right (clicking complacent and harmless indie instead of amphetamine and stoner rock) are lloverme reviews my colleagues to put the almost inaudible volume. But because it can put on your headphones, and at some point of the day, listen to what they want. Meanwhile the background tune is still there, making mattress when a cold silence occurs.

I’m finishing my confidences, but not before apologizing to one of my colleagues (half joking, half serious) expected disertase on another subject in particular: know that I looong years as a designer, a fact that has attracted increasing attention intrigued by so much professional survival.

I can only tell you to be quiet, what would this world without designers? Moreover, the subject matter was too complicated and bit me funny.

20 movies that every designer and creative must see

There are various professions whose field of work requires the absorption of artistic and technical knowledge. The design focuses on achieving precisely create something useful creative, bold and unique way. It’s no surprise that there are many films that make the design an important part of the plot, or even documentaries focused entirely on the sample of what really is the design.

Fashion, graphic, industry; the designer can move between branches or focus on only one. Today, with specialized schools in each of the branches of design purist many people it becomes something and excludes those who are interested. But, like art, design is mutable and only need to create an exceptional discipline; although knowledge is never enough so here are a list of movies and documentaries that every designer should see. You can watch movies online free in High Definition on putlocker

 

Art & Copy – Doug Pray (2009)

Believe that creativity can solve anything is a strong statement, but in this documentary the idea of ​​how advertising is more than a machine bombing explained. While some belittle this profession, others put on a pedestal because of the strong impact it can have on society. This film is proof of what can be accomplished when good people really dedicated to this medium.

 
A scanner Darkly – Richard Linklater (2006)

 

The film director Boyhood portrays a society in which 20% of people are addicted to a new drug, test it only makes you hallucinate and you get addicted. Before this an undercover agent will have to infiltrate a group of traffickers and addicts. The film uses the technique of rotoscoping in which you draw on real images and digitized. This had already been used by Linklater in his philosophical tape Waking Life .

 
Design and Thinking – Mu – Ming Tsai (2012)

The twenty-first century can not stay with the ideas of the past to create. This documentary deals with a new method of creation. Empathy, defined, idea, prototype and test are the keywords. Creative genius is not born of romanticism, the creative is working hard and seeking solutions based on experience.

 
Spirited Away – Hayao Miyazaki (2001)

 

This film is the Oscar winner for best animated film and is considered the masterpiece of its director. Work scenarios and characterization of each character will make anyone fall in love with this endearing story. More than this tape, all of Miyazaki films deserve to be in this position because of its high and deep design.

 
Why Man Creates – Saul Bass (1968)

 

This Oscar-winning short was created in the turbulent and revolutionary era of the sixties. It is the legacy of half century in which creative ideas began to extend its influence over traditional jobs. The time when the industrial design, advertising and transformed the art.

 
Moonrise Kingdom – Wes Anderson (2012)

 

As with Miyazaki, all tapes of this director can be displayed here. From the animated Fantastic Mr. Fox, due to their excellent work in Stop Motion or his latest blockbuster The Grand Budapest Hotel,  where the color palette is more exaggerated than ever. Wes Anderson tapes are a visual delight that will make everything set designer, art director, animator, filmmaker, designer and fall in love with the technical and creative work of these tapes.

 
The trilogy of design – Gary Hustwit (2007- 2011)

These tapes are great theoretical and creative works of independent court showing the importance of three issues concerning the design. The first tape Helvetica takes the most famous fountain in the world to enter the graphic design, Objectified talks about industrial design and Urbanized focuses on urban design, in megacities and more.

 
Waltz with Bashir – Ari Folman (2008)

 

Unlike A Scanner Darkly, this film does not use rotoscoping but the film works by mixing it with adobe Flash animation and traditional animation. It is not only a majestic visual representation that will inspire artists to create works how are you, but also open your eyes to the horrors of war.

 
PressPausePlay – David Dworsky / Victor Köhler

 

As we move more and more to a digital world, artistic creation is changing. Now anyone can access a camera and become a photographer, write and blog and be a writer, access an application and become a musician. It is not a statement attacking these people; Postmodernism has broken major stories and the truth is no longer unique, aesthetic and artistic value no longer depend on the critic of the most important magazine, if so many paradigms are allowed as stated this documentary, this is the best time in the to design and create history.

 
Vincent – Tim Burton (1982)

 

The early career of Burton show his genius beginning to germinate, this film not only closes the list also opens the career of the most eccentric Hollywood Director. Vincent His work shows the artist’s fascination with German expressionism. The shadows, the scenery which refers to Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and more are just one of the things that can be seen in the cut of a director who looks after both the design of its scenery as your script.

 

How to make a perfect design for a Youtube channel

In the article deals we’ll tell you how to make a banner design for the head of a Youtube channel and purchase youtube views so that fits perfectly to the different screen resolutions thanks to a template measures .

Formerly we saw how to create a YouTube channel and then we can see how to optimize SEO for our videos and channel .

In the present one we focus on the creation of a header which is basically the picture above showing the feed of the videos we go up the canal .

Most notable is that employ a single image that will be adjusted to different screen resolutions where our display channel .

These resolutions are or can be differentiated in the following: Desktop, TV, Android – iOS (smartphone) and tablets.

Thus we must adjust to certain measures to make the image look like we want wherever it is displayed and for that we will use a template .

On the other hand a suitable design allows us to raise the profile of our channel and so we use it in our favor.

One of the tasks that I have pending is to make the head of my channel, but things still life I have not gotten around to it.

Henceforth, once do I have to return to the post to update and thus show my design.

Anyway, I leave the link to my channel to which you can get by clicking here .

Use this opportunity to subscribe 😉

Returning to the subject.

DESIGN TEMPLATE BANNER HEADER FOR YOUTUBE CHANNEL

We start from the idea that we should use a single image that will be displayed at different resolutions.

As we indicated from the guidelines size of Youtube own this image must have some measures 2560x1440px , which correspond to the width and height of the image.

Oh and it should not exceed the size of 2Mb .

For this we can use an image editor such as Gimp , already use it in another post to create a banner or Photoshop, to design our header image.

On second thought there is a better solution on these lines tell you.

This image size (2560x1440px) would completely if for example we enter the channel using a smart TV.

Now we are seeing high to low resolution size Youtube how headers are displayed .

BANNER SIZE HEADER ON THE PC

In pc screens, according to the monitor resolution image will adapt based on the following measureswidth to 1546px and 2560px always mateniendo a high of 423px.

For different cases always centered on the monitor.

As proof you can visit the design of this channel by clicking here .

To test you must use a larger monitor and gradually reduce the size of the browser window so you can see how it will adjust the width of maintaining the same high.

The minimum width of 423px and 1546px is called Safety area .

If we design this area we ensure the play, ie that will look good on most resolutions .

MEASURES BANNER TABLETS

In this device the width is slightly larger and passes 1855px, remaining high.

Similarly if we respect the security area will have a high percentage of it is displayed correctly on any tablet.

DIMENSIONS HEADER IN SMARTPHONE

For smartphones with Android or iOS systems we maintain the security area to ensure it is properly displayed.

RECOMMENDATIONS ON MEASURES FOR DESIGN

But to provide our design you can download by clicking here template that gives us the Youtube itself .

Once you download it there you will find both the PSD file as a file in .png format that can be opened directly with the image editor you prefer.

In both cases the overall dimensions are those for the maximum size of 2560x1440px.

The image will serve as the reference PSD to fit as your design .

Once you have created and uploaded to your channel (see it below) I would advise you to try to visualize it on every device you can to ensure it look ok.

CREATE AND UPLOAD THE IMAGE TO DISPLAY IN THE HEADER OF YOUR CHANNEL

We have created our head! 🙂

And now, how do I show in my channel?

Easy.

You access your channel, and in the upper right, if you approach pointer pen that you must click shows in which you show the options shown in the following image:

You must press the option Edit channel header and immediately the option Upload picture Mostara .

Explore disk and select the image you’ve created your design, remember that there is a maximum size of 2Mb.

Once uploaded the image displayed as displayed on different devices as you can see below.

At this point you also have the option to adjust the image trimming or leave default automatic adjustment.

If the image you have created has the dimensions of the template will be set correctly, so it would not have to make any cuts.

On the other hand if you’ve uploaded a much larger image you can manually adjust the cropping and leaves you the option to preview how it will look on different devices before confirming the cut.

As you see the image loading is very simple.

CONCLUSION

As you’ve seen create a header for Youtube is the easiest and what needs to be clear it is that a single image serves to all the screen resolutions.

Once you based on the template you can simply adjust the pattern to Safety area (which is what you will see in most screens) and then go to expand the design for larger devices, such as the case of connected TV to Internet.

I hope to be helpful and are free to leave your thoughts in the comments 🙂

Design of a nutrition plan to gain muscle mass

This article is about the physiological aspects that underlie the calculations employing sports nutritionists to maximize muscle mass. Most of the people who spend their time on a regular basis to the weights, at any given time, there are ‘upload’ weight. But how is it done through diet? What are the limits on the scale to grow ‘clean’? There are various ways to address the issue?

All these questions answered is by reference to a chapter on sports diets, in the book BODY TRANSFORMATION FROM BOTH SIDES OF THE FORCE of Christian Thibaudeau and Anthony Roberts.

HOW MANY CALORIES ARE NEEDED?

Dieta-para-ganar-masa-muscularBefore going into details about the type of calories that suit us, we might begin by determine what quantity is needed to synthesize maximum muscle in an optimal way. Accounts to find the amount of calories needed per day not only has to take into account the values of energy intake of macronutrients. Because just like when built a House, in addition to paying the materials, we also need to cover the cost of labor. I.e., although the body has the nutrients in adequate amounts, the work of protein synthesis is not free for the organism. For each gram of protein synthesized in muscle again woven form are necessary around 220 additional Kcal: this is a cost we have to pay if we want the body to put hands to work.

Taking into account that a pound of muscle (0,455 kg) is achieved with 100 g of protein synthesized, to earn that amount of muscle mass in a month would be necessary a surplus of 22.000 Kcal above the needs of maintenance (what comes to be a surplus of 733,3 Kcal / day).

Something to keep in mind for those who claim to ‘upload’ without paying the extra cost of labor. To gain muscle mass should cause a caloric surplus in the organism.

SO MANY MORE CALORIES CONSUME EXTRA,…? FASTER DO WE RAISE? OR IS THERE A LIMIT?

‘Natural’ ability (without chemical AIDS: steroids, insulin, GH,…) etc) to synthesize ‘dry’ muscle tissue (not the fat we are interested in) is on average between 0.45 kg – 0. 9 kg / month (110 g – 225 g / week). Then, if we are to rise 0.45 kg a month would we’re gaining muscle mass in an optimal way?. Probably not.

kai comiendoCertain amounts of muscle gains do not translate in the scale with a rise in those same amounts by weight. Because that muscle will retain water inside to store glycogen (per 100 g of muscle are retained between 15-40 g extra glycogen + water depending on whether the muscle is trained or not). Therefore, the rise in weight has to be necessarily greater. If we gain 4.5 kg of muscle trained in 10 months (0.45 kg / month), will not be 4.5 kg more climbing ‘dry’; but 6.3 kg also counting the weight of the glycogen that will contain the new muscle mass.

Redoing the calculations as told so far, the increase of ‘weight’ maximum climbing ‘dry’, without chemical AIDS and with muscles personal training gym NYC (and glycogen-laden) would be established between 630g – 1kg 250 g / month (154g – 315 g week) provided that respect a caloric surplus (above the needs of maintenance of 733 Kcal – 1450 Kcal / day.) The anabolic that exists is the food and the most direct way to limit muscle growth is infraalimentarse.

Following the analogy above proposed construction, proteins would be ‘bricks’ to build the muscle structure and carbohydrates and fats would be the energy ‘salary’ to pay for labor. With chemical AIDS such as those that employ many professional bodybuilding, we are giving workers working on muscle building instruction to do so ‘piecework’ and will be built much faster (as if once per metre instead of for finished work, to be clear). Why estes athletes are able to afford (even quite necessary) eat more. Increase the consumption of carbohydrates and fats, without monitor both the quality of the food, because in order to pay him the body working in this way it is required a lot of energy. On the contrary, for the majority of practitioners of weights (they are not eating hormonal chemical AIDS) makes no sense to eat more carbohydrates and fats than strictly necessary to cover the cost of the achievable maximum work. Cover surplus mentioned before is optimum.

CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY NEEDS OF MAINTENANCE

The formula most used by nutritionists for the calculation of basal energy needs (energy that the body uses to keep their systems running on full rest) is the HARRIS-BENEDICT. However, this formula (which already takes into account factors such as age, sex, weight and size of the subjects), is not able to discriminate the enormous energy difference that exists between a body weight whose highest percentage match muscle with respect to another in which fat is to determine the increase in weight. The muscle is tissue ‘alive’ that it consumes energy and fat is just a repository of energy compressed into 9 Kcal / per gram. Two people from 100 kg to the same height and Constitution, one with 10% body fat and the other with a 25% fat what do you think that it will have a higher energy cost? Of course, that only has 10% of fat, a time that it understates the skeleton and of the viscera and body fluids to the remaining 90 kg, is there much muscle to feed…

For this reason, the original HARRIS BENEDICT formula has been modified so that also discriminated against with respect to the amount of fat-free weight.

MEN = 66 + (13.7 x weight ‘lean’) + (5 x height cm) – (6.8 x age)

WOMEN = 655 + (9.6 x weight ‘lean’) + (1.7 x height cm) – (4.7 x age)

To apply this formula before it is necessary to Calculate the % of body fat to subtract that amount of fat to weight. For example, in the subject of 80 kg with a 12% body fat, 9.6 kg would correspond to FAT (making a simple rule of three). It is the amount that must be subtracted to the total weight of the body: 80 kg – 9, 6 kg = 70.4 kg.

adelgazar-2Various techniques are used to find the amount of body fat in the body. The body fat and BIOIMPEDANCEare two very affordable and easy to do. The combination of both results can give a really rough measure of fat our body weight.

Imagine a man of 180 cm in height, 28 years old, 82 kg in weight and with a 12% body fat. Your weight without fat is 72,16 kg (performed the calculation).

66 + (13.7 x 72.16) + (5 x 180) – (6.8 x 28) =

66 + 988,59 + 900 – 190,4 =

= 1764,19 Kcal.

Are these calories that we need to keep us? Obviously not. These are the calories consumed in the ‘BASAL’ State, i.e., if we were in bed rest (for example, when we sleep). But, fortunately, we are moving and some more than others. So this caloric amount will be necessary to add also the number of calories that we use as energy for daily activities (which varies from other people). Not everyone plays the same physical activity in their work, or performs the same type of workout in the gym or outside it, are also everyday actions such as walking or perform several tasks… all sum.

As it would be very difficult (and rather ineffective) be determined in detail the cost of each activity during a day, to carry an estimate of the cost by activity have been established ‘categories’ of activity and a system of factors has been designed to apply to the basal energy cost that will result in a quite approximate figure of the energy expenditure of maintenance we are looking for. They are the factors of activity at following:

ACTIVITY FACTOR

Sedentary

1

Very light activity

1.2

Work desk

Light activity

1.4

Work desk + light sports routine

Moderate activity

1.6

Physical work / / work desk + moderate sports routine

Heavy activity

1.8

Physical work + light sports routine

Work desk + hard sports routine

Extreme activity

2

Hard work + hard sports routine

In the case of our example subject, he works 8 hours a day sitting in an office and goes back to work by car. Elders makes a session of 45 minutes of weights from Monday to Friday and exits to run 30 minutes 3 times a week. We could consider it a moderate activity, so we will apply a 1.5 X factor.

If we multiply this factor x BASAL energy expenditure (1.5 x 1764,19 Kcal), the result will give us the energy expenditure of maintenance = 2646,28 Kcal.

 

CALCULATION OF ENERGY NEEDS TOTALS ACCORDING TO OBJECTIVES

These are the necessary calories to face the day, and also which will take as a reference to establish diet NORMOCALORICAS. But if we want to gain muscle or lose fat you should enter more calories to pay the body to synthesize new fabrics (high CALORIE DIETS) or enter fewer calories that the body is forced to use its reserves (low CALORIE DIETS).

The ideal to gain muscle mass would be to establish a hypothetical energy point of departure, taking into account anything seen so far. In our example the subject case should the 2.646, 28 Kcal maintenance, adding an extra 733 Kcal – 1450 Kcal to reach the listed limits of muscular mass without chemical AIDS hormonal building. From this reference, every 15 days could go by conducting studies of body composition to see if the weight gain is desired and, above all, if it corresponds to a gain of ‘lean’ mass (without FAT). As each body has different, at the end answers, everything is calibrated on the basis of trial / error.

However, also attempted to simplify the calculation by means of application of peacekeeping expenditure percentages that will give us some equally valid and approximate references to start testing our nutritional plan.

CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY NEEDS IN LINE WITH OBJECTIVES

Maximum muscle growth moderate fat /Ganancia

125 130% maintenance

Muscle gain high / low fat gain

115 120% maintenance

Moderate muscle gain / no fat gain

105 110% maintenance

Low muscle gain / low fat loss

90 95% maintenance

Without muscle loss / moderate fat loss

80 85% maintenance

Low muscle loss / maximum fat loss

70 75% maintenance

It is not the place to expand on this article on the subject, but in view of the above table already a few deductions can be made. It is impossible to consider a diet to maximize muscle gains and losses of weight simultaneously.When we want to lose fat quickly we are going to sacrifice muscle and when we wish to gain muscle quickly will also gain some fat. Mixed nutritional approaches are ideal to remain stable or to make approaches to long term objectives, but if what we want is to ‘tackle’ toward the goals we know that what we are going to win on the one hand it will necessarily lose on the other.

In our example, at the moment case is set as target moderate without fat gain muscle gain. So your daily caloric intake would be set at a margin of a 105 – 110% of your cost of maintenance of 2.646,28 Kcal = i.e. 2778,59-2910,91 Kcal. (between 2,800 and 2,900 kcal to simplify.).

 

DISTRIBUTION OF MACRONUTRIENTS

cachasBefore (when at the beginning of the article, we use the analogy of ‘construction’), already established a clear difference between proteins and carbohydrates / fats. These two are only (more or less available) energy to pay the energy cost of the activity (the body to operate and move and anabolic workers to build new tissue). However, the protein was considered as material (the same ‘ bricks’) that rises the body construction (are the raw material from which it is made and not a salary to pay for the body). So the first thing you must do to establish our nutritional plan is ensuring that we we have enough material to build from what would we have enough energy to pay if there is no enough bricks? The human body is a complex building daily suffering damage which must be repaired and ‘strengthen’ constantly. Without ‘bricks’, the workers would stand by lack of material and the building would come slowly down.

So, we will begin by establishing the amount of protein (in reality of amino acids, the true ‘bricks’) that are needed to build muscle mass.

The who (World Health Organization) established long ago a ratio of 0.8 g / kg body weight / day as the standard to establish the calculations. But if we suitably assimilated the concepts that we have been exposing up to this point, we will find that this figure does not even consider the origin of that body weight (and we already know that bricks are needed to repair and strengthen the muscle walls and not for fats). In addition, who established this figure by taking as a reference the ‘maintenance’ body (not the increase of muscle) in ‘sedentary’ people (not in people subjected to a severe muscle damage as athletes (especially practitioners of weights).

Thus, if we are to maximize the muscle tissue, to maintain a ‘stable’ rate of amino acids per day, you could manage periodically every 2-3 hours on a total daily protein servings more chord for bodybuilders:

PROTEIN NEEDS ACCORDING TO OBJECTIVE

MUSCLE gain phase – caloric excess

2.2 – 2.75 g / kg ‘clean’ weight / day

MAINTENANCE – adjusted calorie phase

2.2 – 2.75 g / kg ‘clean’ weight / day

FAT loss phase – calorie deficit

2.75 – 3.5 g / kg ‘clean’ weight / day

But taking into account that this calculation is performed on the body weight free of fat (i.e., the same that we used for the formula of the BASAL energy expenditure, before calculating the % of body fat). NOT about the weight body TOTAL that reflects the scale!

levrone1It is also important to note that these amounts are refer to the protein total, not to the references to the supplements exclusively. I.e., the figure refers to the proteins that come from the power + supplementation.

In the case of our example, that wants to gain muscle mass and has a free 72,16 kg grease weight would get 158,75 g – 198,44 g of protein daily. And, bearing in mind that each g of protein provides 4 Kcal, they would be 635-793, 76 Kcal total corresponding to proteins.

If our example subject to consume 198,44 g of protein, then we must subtract the 793,76 Kcal to the 2,900 Kcal we had established as the TOTAL CALORIC. What leaves us 2.106, 24 Kcal for carbohydrates and fats.

At this point, there is more than one approach that will be most efficient according to the objective to be achieved:

CARBO-dominant DIETS This type of approach are indicated in the phases of volume, to replenish muscle glycogen in times of high demands energy (extensive aerobic work), in people with very rapid metabolisms or people who pass through a pathological condition or recovery from injury or trauma (with very high power consumption). They are diets high in carbohydrates and low in fat. [70-80% HC – 30 GR – 20%] (we talked about always percentages with respect to the calorie total after subtracting the calories of proteins).

GRASA-DOMINANTES DIETS The diets of this style are the best results report when it comes to fat loss. They tend to provide less than 50 grams of HC a day.[HC 10-20% – GR 80-90%] (we talked about always percentages with respect to the calorie total after subtracting the calories of proteins).

EQUILIBRADAS-DISOCIADAS DIETS They are diets balanced in the sense that partitioned the macronutrients more equitably. [HC 50% – 50% GR]. They are typically used to keep within our weight and proper body composition or to get small ‘clean’ muscle mass gains. The difference with monodominantes diets is conversely should be avoided at all costs in the same meal!! the combination of nutrients which leads to the accumulation of fatty tissue. CARBS + fat are prohibited within the same meal (especially sugars high glycemic index that cause us insulin spikes). Separately, or in the other possible combinations (carbohydrates + protein, fat + protein) 3 macronutrients can be eaten without problem. The only requirement is that protein combinations + not to most consume carbohydrate 5 g of fat and protein combination + fat not eaten more than 5 g of carbohydrates.

Cyclic approaches In this approach each day or group of days will be programming with respect to the 3 previous approaches depending on the different needs of training, competition and recovery. The best option to maximize the gain of muscle mass is to combine days of equilibrada-disociada diet as a base with graso-dominante someday to go to maintain the fat % under control.

The design and development of intelligence

Humans are born with the potential marked by genetics; however, we now know that we can develop as many through certain stimuli, such as design.

The author Howard Gardner (1983), creator of the theory of multiple intelligences, defines intelligence as: «The ability to solve problems or create products that are valuable in one or more cultures». To define intelligence as an ability, Gardner has become a skill that can be developed. Although there is no denying the genetic component and social and cultural interaction, today we know that in addition to being born with potential marked precisely by Genetics, we can also develop many others from the environment, experiences, education, intelimax iq funciona, etc.

This puts us to think in agents or elements that allow us to develop these capabilities, and after much thinking it, you can reach the conclusion that the design is one of these. Even though it may seem pretentious, I dare say that you part of those intelligences that Gardner speaks, they are promoted and stimulate through design and its presence in the ongoing management of information and products involving culture and everyday life.

One of the eight types of intelligence of the above theory is just the Visual-spatial intelligence, that as well as allowing us to be able to perceive the reality, make mental reproductions of the same, recognize shapes and objects in different conditions and circumstances and relate them with basics such as lines, shapes and spaces, also allows us to nourish the memory and Association through the visual as well as enrich our experiences with the world and others from the plane of the image.

Coupled with this, and recognizing the importance of the development of these multiple intelligences Gardner model, is even products and «artifacts» made by designer allow you, through the graphical representation, metaforizar the world in our minds and develop aspects as important as the internal representation of reality, and even stimulate our imagination to construct different realities.

Biologically, the sense of sight is the first that takes place, and before they learn to speak and communicate in other ways, we learn to see and recognize individuals and the images. Therefore Visual messages are the first we learn to recognize and are those who come faster to our brain, even encouraging other types of intelligences such as emotional intelligence, the interpersonal and intrapersonal, the verbal and musical, because all of them require concerning Visual to achieve this.

Therefore today it has recognized, in almost all areas, the importance of the visual as a means to promote this and other intelligences. The use of media, technology and design with a high visual component, favor much the response of the learning of people with this kind of intelligence, because the contents are organized through images, forms, spatial contexts and elements as color, who organize and facilitate the assimilation and its development.

Design and graphic expression helps to have better reception of information and provide motivation for the general assimilation of the world and reality. We know clearly that learning and compression are provided if the information is accompanied by Visual elements that provide a higher level of communication and a way of more comprehensive interpretation.

Based on the above, I could dare to rethink commitment to design in the social agenda; Since graphic design responds to the needs of a society, it is everywhere, in everything we do, everything we see and everything else we buy; We can see it in everything that surrounds us. The image is inseparable from any civilization. From the oldest traces of humanity up to images conceived with virtual reality, deliver to our eyes precisely, i.e. symbolic objects that make us appropriating the world and stimulate our multiple intelligences.

When we see a simple image, we are actually seeing a representation of conditions and experiences that we want to communicate something. Within every mind which sees an image happens a whole complex system of assimilation, which is going to relate to all concepts and experiences that have been presented in the life of each individual to turn that image into one symbol (Beirut et al., 2001).2

When a designer creates an image, so in order to be able to connect this image to life, memory, experience, individuality and awareness of someone, in order to create a new concept in the Viewer, and thus convey a message which, in addition to being remembered, produce reaction expected in the Viewer. The image must be sufficiently strong and attractive for the audience which is directed, but above all, the message must be organized, so that it is clearly read and encoded in such a way that the image and the message will become a symbol.

In this way the designer not only can be considered an expert in Visual-spatial intelligence, but a professional who manages to perceive the world to then produce images in graphic terms and use them as a resource of interpretation of reality; then then, your mission lies in the construction of Visual messages with the purpose of «» positively affect the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of people. The designer is responsible for the creation of Visual elements to compose and recompose the everyday life, and contribute to the identification and the creation of other support actions to achieve the proposed objectives; in other words, this desired reality.

I therefore consider it necessary to stimulate the visual-spatial intelligence of our designers, especially addressing, in the first instance, all those who are committed to train professionals in this area, in order to develop to the highest level all intelligences, in order to re-conceive the profession at its highest social commitment and successfully integrate design products that improve the experience and life in society.